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etymology of ulvophyceae

ulvophycean (plural ulvophyceans) Any green alga of the class Ulvophyceae. Trees of nucleus-encoded plastid EF-Tu and PsbO proteins suggest that chlorarachniophyte plastids are closely related to Bryopsis of the Ulvophyceae (Ishida, Cao, Hasegawa, Okada, & Hara, 1997) and Tetraselmis of the Prasinophyceae (Takahashi et al., 2007), respectively. Arrows represent mathematical equations linking model parameters (Temp., temperature; SRP, soluble reactive phosphate; PAR, photosynthetically active radiation; kPAR, light extinction coefficient). (e) Pinnularia (Diatom; 60 µm). The effects of these widespread, re-established blooms on Lake nutrient cycling and food web structure-including the die-off, transport, and decomposition of large amounts of Cladophora organic matter to the hypolimnion-remain to be determined. The Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae are widely represented in freshwaters and on land but are poorly represented in the sea. Other well-known members include Caulerpa, Codium, Acetabularia, Cladophora, Trentepohlia and Monostroma. Tateyama (Toyema Prefecture, Japan) isolate of P. incisa was previously classified as Myrmecia incisa but has since been renamed due to the presence of an inconspicuous pyrenoid surrounded sparsely by thin starch granules within the deeply incised parietal chloroplast (Watanabe et al., 1996). The chlorophyte Cladophora (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae; more than 400 species) is widely regarded as the most important harmful filamentous alga of inland waters, and the most abundant alga in alkaline streams throughout the world (Table 2, Figure 9). Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella salina, and Haematococcus pluvialis are unicellular representatives of the phylum Chlorophyta and used today in commercial productions, while Parietochloris incisa and Botryococcus braunii show potential for lipid and hydrocarbon production, respectively (see below). Ulvophyceae +‎ -an. The sea lettuce, Ulva, belongs here. Most of the species in these genera are from freshwater or terrestrial habitats (Rindi et al. Green algae taxonomy has been widely disputed since they were described by Linneo in 1753 (Moestrup, 2006). Similar investigations performed with [1-13C]glucose confirmed the presence of the sole MEP pathway in two other unicellular green algae, Chlorella fusca and C. reinhardtii.209 A series of labeling experiments performed later with [1-2H1]DX and DL-[2-13C]MVA and investigation by mass spectrometry of the resulting labeling patterns of sterols and phytol were consistent with the sole presence of the MEP pathway in representatives of four classes of the Chlorophyta (Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Prasinophyceae, which are in its present acceptance not a monophyletic clade).214 The MEP pathway is also involved in the biosynthesis of the acyclic triterpenes, botryococcenes, and tetramethylsqualene in the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B.215 Using the same labeling method, a mixed origin was found for the isoprenoids of the Charophyceae lineage (Spirogyra sp., Klebsophormidium flaccidum, Mesostigma viride), which is phylogenetically related to higher plants.214 The absence of the cytosolic MVA pathway has been now confirmed by the completely sequenced genome of C. reinhardtii, Chlorophyta (green algae). From Higgins, S.N. Information and translations of ulvophyceae in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Consequently, most of the body fossils that are attributable to green algae have been placed in one or the other of the two, although the three species of Proterocladus are commonly assigned to the Cladophorales (Butterfield et al. Great Lakes Water Institute, Wisconsin Aquatic Technology and Environmental Research, UW Milwaukee. (k) Ceratium (Dinoflagellate; 125 µm wide). The first three listed taxa commonly co-occur in temperate habitats; Pithophora is a more tropical organism although it can occur in temperate habitats; and Hydrodictyon is not usually as problematic as the others. From Auer M (2005) Modeling Cladophora growth: A review of the Auer-Canale framework In: Cladophora Research and Management in the Great Lakes, pp. 2B). In Orchrophyta, the main reserve polysaccharide is laminaran (Section 2.5.2), which is found in a vacuole inside the chloroplast (Barsanti and Gualtieri, 2014). The term Chlorophyta came from Ancient Greek khlōrós, meaning “green” and‎ –phyta, meaning “plant”. 1995). What does ulvophyceae mean? The Ulvophyceae is one of the 3 classes currently recognized in the chlorophyte lineage, the others being Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae (formerly Pleurastrophyceae; [58]). in Bootsma et al. Secondary plastids are believed to have originated from several secondary endosymbioses with either chlorophytes or rhodophytes. Chlorophyta (Ulvophyceae or green seaweeds, and freshwater or terrestrial Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae) and unveil a rapid radiation of Chlorophyceae and the principal lineages of the Ulvophyceae late in the Neoproterozoic Era. The taxonomy of this complex is, however, still under investigation (Henley et al. Colonies are surrounded by a carbohydrate-based retaining wall composed of arabinose and galactose, while cell walls surrounding the cells are the typical α-1,4- and β-1,3-linked polysaccharides (Weiss et al., 2012). Some species, such as Monostroma, Enteromorpha (synonymous to Ulva), Caulerpa, are sometimes used as food.. Macroalgal seaweeds primarily occur in two kingdoms, the Plantae and Chromista. Yoshihisa Hirakawa, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2017. Chloroplast phylogenomics has become a useful approach to elucidate the enigmatic evolutionary relationships of different taxonomic levels of plants 1,2,3,4.However, resolving the ancient phylogenetic history remains difficult because of non-phylogenetic signal 5, or use of simplistic substitution models 6 in the large-scale molecular data. For example, the major group of green seaweeds (, Natural Products Structural Diversity-I Secondary Metabolites: Organization and Biosynthesis. Documented high densities of Escherichia coli and other fecal bacteria within the decomposing mats represent a potential human health threat, suggesting that the efficacy of water column E. coli as an indicator of fecal contamination from sewage may be compromised in locations where Cladophora accumulates along Great Lake shores. The ulvophycean order Ulotrichales is exceptional in that it encompasses every morphological type except the vegetative flagellates and the true siphons (O'Kelly and Floyd 1984a; Floyd and O'Kelly 1990; Friedl and O'Kelly 2002; O'Kelly et al. CAUP H 5301 (sub 'Kentrosphaera gibberosa var. Results from the simulations suggested a nonlinear response of C. glomerata growth to reductions in P loading, in part because of P luxury consumption. Though M. minuta is a colourless protist, it cannot be excluded that the secondary endosymbiosis occurred in a common ancestor of chlorarachniophytes and M. minuta, and that the plastid has been lost in M. minuta. These plants, again, are united in gene-sequence-based phylogenies and a small number of ultrastructural and biochemical characters, most notably a flagellar apparatus that is nearly radially symmetrical, with usually four microtubular roots subtending two or four basal bodies, and without an MLS (Melkonian 1984; O'Kelly and Floyd 1984b; O'Kelly 1992). Like Chlorella, cells of D. salina contain a single cup-shaped chloroplast with a central pyrenoid surrounded by starch granules (Cavalier-Smith, 1998). In spite of their ecological importance as primary producers and microbioeroders of marine calcium carbonate (CaCO3) substrata, endolithic phototrophs spanning both prokaryotic (the cyanobacteria) and eukaryotic algae lack established molecular resources for their facilitated survey with high throughput sequencing. 1992; Kim et al. Michel Rohmer, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, First proof for the presence of the MEP pathway in the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was obtained after feeding the cells with several 13C-labeled glucose isotopomers.213 Surprisingly, all investigated isoprenoids including sterols, phytol, carotenoids, and the prenyl chains of plastoquinone were solely derived from the MEP pathway. Green algae range from numerous small unicellular flagellates, which likely represent the ancestral form of Chloroplastida (Figure 4(a)), through various colonial and filamentous types (Figure 4(b)), to complex, differentiated macroalgae. Simplified diagram of the revised Cladophora growth model (CGM), used to assess the importance of light, temperature, phosphorus (P), and selfshading on Cladophora spatial/temporal variability post-Dreissena spp. Capsosiphon fulvescens is a filamentous green algal species (Ulvophyceae) distributed along the North Atlantic (Bliding 1963, Mathieson and Hehre 1994) and Northwestern Pacific coastlines including Korea (Kang 1966) and Japan (Chihara 1967).It has been used as a traditional Korean cooking ingredient and it is extensively cultivated in Korea from November to March. In the Ulvophyceae, however, sexual life history patterns may be zygotic, gametic, or an alternation of diploid and haploid phases. 2004). Most members are marine, and the majority of green "seaweeds", including well-known species of Ulva, Acetabularia and Caulerpa, are placed in this class. Chlorophyte plastomes are typically AT-biased possibly due to selection for translational efficiency (i.e. Only about 3% of the taxa (c. 150 species) occur in freshwater habitats. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. 63–71. Based on the phylogenetic tree of plastid 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) genes, chlorarachniophyte plastids are inferred to be closely related to extant species of Chlorella/Nanochlorum in the Trebouxiophyceae (Van de Peer, Rensing, Maier, & De Wachter, 1996). 57–61. Remarkably, the plastids of glaucophytes also retain a vestige of the bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall between inner and outer plastid membranes (Löffelhardt and Bohnert, 1994; Jackson et al., 2015). The CAM was later modified as the Cladophora Growth Model (CGM) to consider effects of the recent exotic mussel invaders (Figure 11), especially increased water clarity and increased Pi concentrations during the spring growing season for Cladophora. Flowing-water habitats where these organisms can become abundant are considered here as mesotrophic; although they can be characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, supplies are continually renewed from the flowing water, and boundary layers are minimized. [8] Fossils are rare but there are some good candidates in a mid-Ordovician lagerstatten.[1]. ces of bacterial origin. Their history likely dates back more than 1 billion years, based on scant early fossils (Butterfield et al., 1990). The land plants evolved from within the streptophyte/charophycean green algae, which are mostly freshwater forms. Future genomic and ultrastructural studies of this interesting organism will address this issue. 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